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Tracking is the actual "recording" step of the process. This is where microphones are set up, cables are connected, levels are set, and the music is performed. This step can be completed either by recording the full band live and all at once, or by multi-tracking the musicians individually (which is how Adam creates most of his recordings). Whatever the method, you will record every track (hence "tracking") which you will need to create the finished product.
Mixing is the stage where all of those recorded tracks are cleaned up, balanced out, and put together into something that sounds "studio-quality" and professional. It is here where additional audio effects can be added. Effects range from subtle things like compression (helping to even out the dynamics of a track) and EQ (tone shaping) to somewhat more obvious things like adding delays, reverbs, and distortion.
Adam demonstrates the transformation of raw tracks into a proper mix in a video that you can watch here.
Mastering tends to be a very subtle, but remarkably important step of the process. When a mix is completed, chances are it will still sound much quieter overall than a track you might stream online or hear on the radio. Mastering solves that problem in an artful way while still maintaining the original integrity of the mix. Once the volume is addressed, there may also be some tone imbalances or minor imperfections that the mastering engineer can adjust for the final release. For EPs and albums, this is the stage where all songs are balanced against one another to form a cohesive whole.
To sum it all up: Tracking provides the raw audio, Mixing makes that audio sound professional, and Mastering prepares the song (or album) for final release.
Adam uses Apple's Logic Pro X music recording and editing software to track and produce professional recordings.